Legal Dictionary

This page includes a list of legal terms and definitions. These definitions are not meant to be exhaustive. SmartLaw strongly suggests further research into the meaning of legal terms within various contexts and law related issues. These definitions are not to be relied on as legal advice or as a replacement for advice from a lawyer. For legal advice, contact SmartLaw to be referred to a qualified lawyer.

Summary of what a court or government agency does, has done, or orders.

In criminal law, a person that helps another person commit a crime, either before or after the crime is committed.

In criminal law, a person that helps another person commit a crime.

In criminal law, a person that is charged with a crime that must go to criminal court.

In criminal law, when a jury or a judge finds that a person on trial is not guilty.

Ad litem
Latin: For the purpose of the legal action only.

In family law, a way to make a relationship between a parent and child legal when the two are not biologically parent and child.

Person that has authority to act for another person.

In criminal law, a defense claim that an accused person, factually, could not have committed a crime.

In family law, money that a court orders a person to pay to a spouse or ex-spouse.

Statement or claim made which has not been proved to be true or false.

To declare, say or charge that certain facts are true, though the facts have not yet been proved.

Statement a defendant in a civil matter writes in response to a “complaint.” Includes defenses.

When someone loses a case and subsequently asks a higher court, an appellate court, to review the decision in the prior case and decide if the decision was correct.

Proceeding where a neutral/uninvolved person looks at evidence, hears arguments, and decides outside of a formal court proceeding.

In criminal law, a court proceeding in which a person accused of committing a crime goes to court, is told the charges, and is asked to plead “guilty” or “not guilty.”

Arrest warrant
In criminal law, a court order that requires a peace officer to arrest and bring a person to the court to begin a legal action.

Attorney of Record
Attorney whose name is listed as representing someone in a case.

Bad Faith
Wrongful refusal to perform a duty or contractual obligation.

Legal document that usually begins a civil lawsuit. This document states the facts and identifies the action the court is asked to take.

Legal right given to a person to manage the property and financial affairs of a person deemed incapable of doing that for him or herself.

Contempt of Court
Willful disobedience of a judge’s command or of an official court order.

Rescheduling of a trial.

Legally enforceable agreement between two or more competent parties made either orally or in writing.

Claim made by a defendant in a civil lawsuit against the plaintiff. In essence, this is a counter lawsuit within a lawsuit.

Court Costs
Expenses of prosecuting or defending a lawsuit other than attorney’s fees. An amount of money may be awarded to the successful party (and recoverable from the losing party) as reimbursement for court costs.

Failure to respond to a lawsuit within the specified time. If a defendant does not respond in a timely way or does not appear at the trial, a “default judgment” is entered against the defendant.

Default Judgment
Judgment that occurs because of the defendant’s failure to answer or appear.

In a civil case, the person being sued is the defendant. In a criminal case, the person charged with a crime is the defendant.

Testimony of a witness taken under oath in preparation for a trial.

Pretrial process by which one party discovers the evidence that will be relied on at trial by the opposing party.

Due Process of Law
Right of all persons to receive the guarantees and safeguards of the law and judicial process. Includes such constitutional requirements as adequate notice, assistance of counsel, and the rights to remain silent, to a speedy public trial, to an impartial jury, and to confront and secure witnesses.

Things to help you prove your case, for example, documents, invoices or photographs.

Ex Parte
On behalf of only one party, without notice to any other party. For example, a request for a search warrant is an ex parte proceeding, as the person subject to the search is not notified of the proceeding and is not present during the hearing.

Crime of greater nature than a misdemeanor, usually punishable by imprisonment in a penitentiary for more than a year and/or substantial fines.

Person or organization that acts on behalf of another person who must act in the best interests of that person.

Temporary leave of absence from work that is not paid and is typically for a set period of time.

Grand Jury
Group of citizens who are assembled in secret to hear or investigate allegations of criminal behavior. A grand jury has authority to conduct criminal investigations and to charge a crime by indictment. It may also have power to issue a report, or presentment, without charging a crime.

For children, when a court orders someone other than a child’s parent to have custody of a child, manage a child’s property, or both.

Habeas Corpus
Writ that commands that a person be brought before a judge. Most commonly, a write of habeas corpus is a legal document that forces law enforcement authorities to produce a prisoner they are holding and to legally justify his or her detention.

The final disposition of a lawsuit.

Judgment Creditor
Person who is owed money after a judgment.

Judgment Debtor
Person who owes money after a judgment.

The nature and scope of a court’s authority to hear and/or decide a case. Also, the territory from which a court is authorized to hear other cases.

A certain number of persons selected according to law and sworn to inquire into matters of fact and declare the trust about matters laid before them.

A “Lemon” is a term used to describe a vehicle that has manufacturing defects affecting its safety, value or utility.

A legal claim against another person’s property as security for a debt. A lien does not convey ownership of the property, but gives the lienholder a right to have his or her debt satisfied out of the proceeds of the property if the debt is not otherwise paid.

Judicial officer exercising some of the functions of a judge.

In criminal law, the unlawful killing of another without intent to kill.

In alternative dispute resolution, an informal way to resolve disputes without going to court. Here, the parties bring their dispute to a neutral third party, who helps them agree on a settlement.

Miranda Warning
In criminal law, requirement that police tell a suspect in their custody of his or her constitutional rights before they question him/her.

In criminal law, criminal offenses considered less serious than felonies. Misdemeanors generally are punishable by a fine or a limited local jail term, but not by imprisonment in a state penitentiary.

A trial which is terminated before a verdict is reached, either because of some extraordinary circumstance, because of the fundamental error prejudicial to the defendant, or because of a hung jury.

Money Judgment
The amount of money the court determines is owed after trial.

Failure to exercise that degree of care which a reasonable person would exercise under the same circumstance.

A local law adopted by a municipality.

In criminal law, the supervised conditional release of a prisoner before the expiration of his or her sentence. If the parolee observes the conditions, he or she need not serve the rest of his or her term.

Person, business, or government agency actively involved in the prosecution or defense of a legal proceeding.

The criminal offense of making a false statement under oath.

The party in a lawsuit that sues first.

Probable Cause
In criminal law, sufficient legal reasons for allowing the search and seizure or the arrest of a person.

An alternative to imprisonment allowing a person found guilty of an offense to stay in the community, usually under conditions and under the supervisor of a probation officer.

A trial lawyer representing the government in a criminal case.

Real Property
Buildings and land.

Reciprocal Will
A reciprocal will, sometimes called a “mirror will,” is used by married couples or partners to transfer all property to a surviving spouse or partner upon death. These are basically two unique wills that are “mirror images” of one another.

Search Warrant
A written order issued by a judge that directs a law enforcement officer to search a specific area for a specific piece of evidence.

Claim that an act otherwise criminal was legally justifiable because it was necessary to protect a person or property from the threat of action of another.

A court’s determination of the punishment to be inflicted on a person convicted of a crime.

An agreement between the parties disposing of a lawsuit.

Simple Will
Last will and testament leaving assets to a spouse or to children equally. Leaving different percentages of assets to immediate family members or to other relatives, like aunts, uncles, nieces, or nephews, may not be a part of a simple will.

Small Claims Court
A court that handles civil claims for small amounts of money.

Summary Judgment
Judgment given on the basis of pleadings, affidavits, and exhibits presented for the record without need for a trial.

In estate planning, a trust is a legal arrangement in which a person transfers the management of certain assets to a another party, who then holds those assets and manages them for the benefit of others.

Most commonly, a court order authorizing law enforcement officers to make an arrest or conduct a search.

A will directs how an estate is administrated and divided after a person’s death.

One who testifies that he or she has seen, heard, or otherwise experienced.

A judicial order directing a person to do something.

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